Sensing is life

  • MAZeT

    Sensing is life

  • MAZeT

    Sensing is life


  • An application specific standard product or ASSP is an integrated circuit that implements a specific function that appeals to a wide market. 

  • In semiconductor device fabrication, product binning is the categorizing of finished products based on their thermal and frequency characteristics.


  • A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

  • Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light. 

  • Calibration is a comparison between measurements – one of known magnitude or correctness made or set with one device and another measurement made in as similar a way as possible with a second device.

  • The candela is the SI base unit of luminous intensity; that is, power emitted by a light source in a particular direction, weighted by the luminosity function (a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths, also known as the luminous efficiency function). 

  • Since the human eye has three types of color sensors that respond to different ranges of wavelengths, a full plot of all visible colors is a three-dimensional figure. 

  • In the study of color perception, one of the first mathematically defined color spaces is the CIE 1931 XYZ color space, created by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1931.

  • Color is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, green, blue, and others. 

  • Almost all colorants age - Both dyes and pigments, whether by chemical decomposition or for example displays by the constant stimulation.

  • In photography and image processing, color balance is the global adjustment of the intensities of the colors (typically red, green, and blue primary colors).

  • There are two types of color mixing: Additive and Subtractive. In both cases there are three primary colors, three secondary colors (colors made from 2 of the three primary colors in equal amounts), and one tertiary color made from all three primary colors.

  • The color opponent process is a color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner. 

  • A color sensor is a device in optoelectroics, that is used to detect and monitor the spectral values of the visible light. 

  • A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components (e.g. RGB and CMYK are color models). 

  • Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light  that has important applications in lighting, photography, videography, publishing, manufacturing, astrophysics, horticulture, and other fields.

  • In the visual arts, color theory is a body of practical guidance to color  mixing and the visual impacts of specific color combination. 

  • In colorimetry and color theory, colorfulness, chroma, and saturation are related but distinct concepts referring to the perceived intensity of a specific color. 

  • Colorimetry is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception." 

  • An interference filter or dichroic filter is an optical filter that reflects one or more spectral bands or lines and transmits others, while maintaining a nearly zero coefficient of absorption for all wavelengths of interest. An interference filter may be high-pass, low-pass, bandpass, or band-rejection.

  • A dichroic filter, thin-film filter, or interference filter is a very accurate color filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors. 

  • A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and requires a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.

  • The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the element's atoms or the compound's molecules when they are returned to a lower energy state.

  • Optical filters are devices which selectively transmit light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as plane glass or plastic devices in the optical path which are either dyed in the mass or have interference coatings.

  • In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.

  • Gloss is an optical property descrbing the ability of a surface to reflect light into the specular direction. The factors that affect gloss are the refractive index of the material, the angle of incident light and the surface topography.

  • Hue is one of the main properties of a color, defined technically, as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow,"(the unique hues). 

  • In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superimpose to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude. 

  • An interference filter or dichroic filter is an optical filter that reflects one or more spectral bands or lines and transmits others, while maintaining a nearly zero coefficient of absorption for all wavelengths of interest.

  • Jitter is the undesired deviation from true periodicity of an assumed periodic signal in electronics and telecommunications, often in relation to a reference clock source. 

  • There are many sources of light. The most common light sources are thermal: a body at a given temperature emits a characteristic spectrum of black-body radiation. 

  • The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit of luminous flux, a measure of the total "amount" of visible light emitted by a source.

  • Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light  travelling in a given direction. 

  • Luminosity is a measurement of brightness. In photometry, luminosity is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to luminance, which is the density of luminous intensity in a given direction. 

  • The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area. 

  • In the study of color vision, MacAdam ellipses refer to the region on a chromaticity diagram  which contains all colors which are indistinguishable, to the average human eye, from the color at the center of the ellipse. 

  • A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input. 

  • In colorimetry, the Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity). 

  • A PIN diode is a diode with a wide, lightly doped 'near' intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region. The p-type and n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for ohmic contacts.

  • Quantum efficiency (QE) is a quantity defined for a photosensitive device such as photographic film or a charge-coupled device (CCD) as the percentage of photons hitting the photoreactive surface that will produce an electron–hole pair.

  • The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light is added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. 

  • A spectral color is a color that is evoked by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths. 

  • A spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials.

  • The speed of light in vacuum, usually denoted by c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. 

  • A standard illuminant is a theoretical source of visible light with a profile (its spectral power distribution) which is published. 

  • The Young–Helmholtz theory (proposed in the 19th century by Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz) is a theory of trichromatic color vision – the manner in which the photoreceptor cells in the eyes of humans and other primates work to enable color vision. 

  • The human eye has photoreceptors (called cone cells) for medium- and high-brightness color vision, with sensitivity peaks in short (S, 420–440 nm), middle (M, 530–540 nm), and long (L, 560–580 nm) wavelengths (there are also low-brightness, monochromatic "night-vision" receptors, called rod cells, which have peak sensitivity around 490–495 nm).

  • The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to (can be detected by) the human eye. 

  • In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

  • A white point (often referred to as reference white or target white in technical documents) is a set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction.

  • In this model, Y means luminance, Z is quasi-equal to blue stimulation, or the S cone response, and X is a mix (a linear combination) of cone response curves chosen to be orthogonal to luminance and nonnegative.